The «Swarm+ investigation of energetic ion up/outflow» («Swarm+ Outflow») project is led by Dr. Spencer Hatch at the Birkeland Centre for Space Science.

The central purpose of «Swarm+ Outflow» is to «determine how Swarm spacecraft measurements of ionospheric plasmas and electromagnetic fields, together with measurements from other satellite missions and ground-based instruments, can be used to fill knowledge gaps related to the phenomenon of ‘energetic ion outflow,'» or the intense loss of ionospheric-origin ions within and near the high-latitude auroral zone.

The project consists of five lines of inquiry:

  • Swarm-EISCAT conjunctions: Correlated electron temperatures, upward flow velocities, and small-scale B-field fluctuations
  • Swarm Echo: correlated upward flow velocities and field fluctuations
  • Swarm-Cluster conjunctions
  • Correlation between electron temperature and density, and ion upward velocity, with small-scale electromagnetic waves observed by Swarm
  • Swarm density measurements: hemispheric asymmetry in polar cap ionosphere plasma density around equinox?




  • Study 1 – Hatch et al. (2020), JGR: Space Physics –  «Relationship between cusp-region ion outflows and east-west magnetic field fluctuations in Southern and Northern Hemispheres», doi:10.1029/2019JA027454
  • Study 2 – Hatch et al. (submitted to JGR: Space Physics), «Seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries in the cold ion outflow source region: Swarm and CHAMP observations of F-region polar cap plasma density», pre-print on ESSOAr
  • Study 3 – Hatch et al. (in preparation), «The role of geomagnetic activity and solar wind driving in the cold ion outflow source region: Swarm and CHAMP observations of F-region polar cap plasma density» (PDF of EGU 2020 presentation)


  • (06 May 2020) «Hemispheric and seasonal variations in the cold plasma outflow source region: polar cap ionosphere electron density at 350–500 km,» D1142, EGU 2020, doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-21247
  • (19 Sep 2019) Swarm Data Quality Workshop presentation, Prague, Czech Republic (PDF)

Data sources


Swarm+ Outflow is a project funded by the European Space Agency (contract no. 4000126731/19/NL/IA) in the framework of the Swarm+ Coupling: High-Low Atmosphere Interactions program.

Internal wiki (team members only)

https://wiki.uib.no/swarmoutflowinternal/index.php/Swarm%2B_Outflow_Internal_Wiki Link